The HIIG Discussion Paper Series on Internet & Society has a interdisciplinary academic focus addressing questions about Internet and Media Regulation, Internet Policy and Governance, Internet-enabled Innovation as well as Global Constitutionalism and the Internet. All SSRN papers are also accessible via the institutes SSRN profile.

All entrys

Hansch, A., Hillers, L., McConachie, K., Newman, C., Schildhauer T., Schmidt P., Video and Online Learning: Critical Reflections and Findings from the Field
(March 13, 2015). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-02

Video is an essential component of most Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) and other forms of online learning. This exploratory study examines video as an instructional medium and investigates the following research questions:

  • How is video designed, produced, and used in online learning contexts, specifically with regard to pedagogy and cost?
  • What are the benefits and limitations of standardizing the video production process?

This report presents an overview of current video practice: the widespread use of video and its costs, the relevance of production value for learning, the pedagogical considerations of teaching online, and the challenges of standardizing production. Findings are based on a literature review, our observation of online courses, and the results of 12 semi-structured interviews with practitioners in the field of educational video production.

Based on these findings, we have developed a set of recommendations designed to raise awareness and stimulate critical reflection on video’s role in online learning. Additionally, we discuss some need for further research on the effectiveness of video as a pedagogical tool and highlight under-explored uses of the medium, such as live video.

Pernice I., Global Constitutionalism and the Internet. Taking People Seriously
(March 10, 2015). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2015-01

States and societies are globally interconnected and interdependent. External effects of national policies challenge democratic self-determination in other states. An increasing density of relations among people worldwide through communication, migration, traveling as well as through global challenges like climate change, deregulated financial markets, terrorism and organized crime require common rules. Existing models and practices of governance beyond the state do not seem to present solutions that are both efficient and legitimate. They show, nevertheless, elements that, if combined, could be a basis for a new method for developing legitimate global rules. Diverse concepts of global constitutionalism can provide conceptual tools for constructing a constitutional frame of governance at the global level including emerging legally binding rules. It is the Internet that seems to allow the information and transparency, communication and discourse, participation of and control by (global) citizens necessary for organizing legitimacy. On that basis the present contribution takes experiences from the diverse arenas of governance producing principles, standards and rules, and uses theoretical approaches of global constitutionalism for depicting seven elements or stages of a norm-setting process through which globally binding rules emerge, are validated and revisited in a manner given people a voice and so taking people seriously.

Send, H., Friesike, S., Ebert, J., Gollatz, K., Schildhauer T., Online Participation and Decision-Making
(December 21, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-07

It is our aim to illustrate a picture of the online participation behavior of German Internet users. We study today’s forms of online participation in two selected fields: politics and the economy. The study is built upon 13 types of opportunities to participate. The outcome is based on a TNS Infratest panel, which is representative of Germany’s online population. The selected sample size reached n=504 respondents.

The results of the study address three central questions:

1. Who participates online today?

We are interested in the distribution of sociodemographic (gender and age distribution) and socioeconomic (income distribution, educational background and current employment status) characteristics within user groups.

Our results show that internet users between the ages of 18 and 36, especially those with a university degree are the most active online participants.

2. What do the users do and what interests them?

Regarding the inquired participation forms, we indicate the frequency of usage, the width and intensity of online activities performed, and the individual level of interest in their respective participation forms. Our findings demonstrate that signing an e-petition, has become a very popular form of political and social online participation. Overall, the amount of time respondents dedicate to online participation demonstrates a high level of engagement.

3. What motivations and incentives are behind online participation?

In the third part, we examine what triggers online participation on the basis of action-oriented, outcome-oriented, and consequence-oriented motivations. Based on the answers given by respondents, five different user groups were identified by similar incentive structures. Creativity and self-efficacy were central personality characteristics noted in the study. The results show that the more users engage in participation forms, the more empowered and creative they feel.

Saldías, O., Coded for Export! The Contextual Dimension of the Brazilian Marco Civil Da Internet (November 17, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-06

Marco Civil da Internet is Brazil’s attempt to regulate fundamental aspects of an open and free Internet (Data Protection, Net Neutrality and Freedom of Speech) by means of securing civil rights before sanctioning misbehaviours criminally. In addition, Marco Civil da Internet has an implicit global ambition in that it was conceived as a possible template for global regulation. Despite this unifying aspiration, there has been no reflexion so far on how Marco Civil would impact upon foreign legal systems. Moreover, there has been no debate about the regional implications of Marco Civil da Internet. The article claims that any regulatory unifying project should seriously consider the relevance of contextual elements; a point blatantly neglected in the debate on Marco Civil da Internet. This work attempts to tackle the problem, offering a first outline of the transnational and regional context that will most probably determine the diffusion of Marco Civil da Internet. Using analytical toolkits offered by comparative legal studies and the diffusion of ideas, it sketches the current regional legal patchwork, of which Marco Civil is part. In doing so, it uncovers upcoming challenges and frictions; solving such tensions, the article suggests, is an inherent task of democratic institutions.

Oermann, M., Lose, M., Schmidt, J.-H., Johnsen, K., Approaching Social Media Governance (September 19, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-05

In this working paper, we address the new forms of governance emerging within the technological and social spaces of Social Media. The overall aim of the underlying research project is to identify and examine the governance factors that regulate the user’s behaviour in Social Media, to discover the governance structure formed by these factors, to analyse the normative intensity of the factors concerning the user’s behaviour in Social Media, and, thereby, to uncover the interplay and interdependencies of the factors among each other. In doing so, the governance background of user behaviour in Social Media shall be revealed. As a first step, we approach this task with a pilot case study on the governance background of a certain user behaviour («uploading a photo») in a certain Social Networking Service (Facebook) whose theoretical foundations, methods, and initial findings we present in this working paper.

Hofmann, J., Katzenbach, C., Gollatz K. Between Coordination and Regulation: Conceptualizing Governance in Internet Governance (August 21, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-04

This paper contributes to the recent move towards a more systematic reflection on the conceptual foundations of Internet governance. It is led by the question of how to define (Internet) governance in a way that is theoretically grounded as well as empirically instructive. For this aim, it mobilizes literature from the broader field of governance and regulation studies as well as sociological theory and applies these concepts to issues of Internet governance. A brief literature review reveals that studies on Internet governance rely on partly contradictory notions of governance. The common understanding as some form of deliberate steering or regulation clashes with equally common definitions of Internet governance that emphasize its distributed and heterogeneous character taking ordering effects of interconnection agreements or discursive arenas like the IGF into account. Drawing on controversies in the broader field of governance and regulation studies, we suggest to dissolve this conceptual problem by grounding governance in mundane coordination activities. We then define governance as reflexive coordination focusing on those »critical moments” when routine activities become problematic and need to be revised, when regular coordination itself requires coordination. Regulation, in turn, can then be understood as intentional interventions by public or private actors aiming to influence the behavior of others. Differentiating between governance and regulation in this way resolves the contradiction between different forms of political ordering found on the Internet. With this conceptualization of governance in Internet governance we hope to contribute to an emerging debate on the conceptual foundations of Internet governance and to prepare the ground for new angles and insights on ordering processes on the net.

Schmidt, J., Johnsen, K., On the Use of the E-Petition Platform of the German Bundestag (June 02, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-03

E-Petitions have become an important aspect of political participation via the Internet, allowing citizens to publicly support political issues. This paper reports findings from a study on the E-Petition Platform of the German Bundestag, combining an analysis of the platform’s database (period: October 2008 to January 2013; n = 2,653 petitions) and an online survey among the platform users (Fieldtime: August/September 2013, n = 244 participants). It reports findings on signature patterns over time as well as between different topical areas, among them evidence for a very uneven distribution of signatures across petitions, for a »spill-over effect” where popular petitions draw attention to the platform to the benefit of other petitions, and for a higher activity of male users. The study also investigated the effect of the introduction of the pseudonymous co-signing option in 2012: No significant change in the amount of signatures was observed, but the majority of co-signers are having a pseudonym rather than their real name displayed in the public list of signatures. This seems to mainly a »default effect”, but results from the survey also show that users consider pseudonymous signatures as serious as real-name support.

Al-Ani, A., Stumpp, S., Schildhauer, T., Crowd-Studie 2014 – Die Crowd Als Partner Der Deutschen Wirtschaft (May 14, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-02

The Humboldt Institute of Internet and Society surveyed – as part of a study – over 200 companies in Germany and interviewed managers about their use of the digital crowd. This is one of the first studies that traces the cooperation between companies and the crowd in the context of the full range of business functions. The results have shown that almost 19 % of companies already cooperate with a digital crowd. Market research, customer service and marketing are the fields of emphasis of this cooperation. Whereas the areas of open innovation and collaborative production still seem to be niches. However also this cooperation will increase in the coming years: Although still few companies use their experiences with the crowd systematically and integrate them into the business processes, a majority of the respondent companies would like to integrate the crowd in the future more consequently, even though they realize that the use of the crowd will require significant transformations of their companies.

Friesike, S., Send, H., Zuch, A., Participation in On-Line Co-Creation: Assessment and Review of Motivations (January 16, 2014). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2014-01

The present article provides an overview of the research on motivation for online co-creation. Motivating participants to contribute in online co-creation endeavours is one of the key challenges in online co-creation. Due to this, an array of scholars has faced this question using a variety of research designs. We found that the multitude of motivational factors that the literature provides can be grouped into five distinct classes based on the overview model of motivation by Heckhausen and Heckhausen. We identify several subclasses for each class and provide a detailed overview for each of them. We also find that ‘expectancies’, a fundamental building block in work motivation has hardly been touched upon by research on motivation for online co-creation.

Saldías, O., Züger, T.,The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: A Pragmatic Approach for Revisiting Ethics and Internet Politics (February 18, 2013). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2013-03

The article stems from a broader ongoing research project on Internet, Global Constitutionalism and Ethics. We attempt to brisk up traditional ethical thinking against the background of urgent questions concerning the Internet. By revisiting the perspective of cosmopolitanism that was inspired by Kant’s thesis of a universal rationality, reflecting upon Hanna Arendt’s critical analysis of moral claims and political outcome, and building on Capurro’s »net ethics”, we introduce a perspective aiming at an intercultural understanding that might guide our actions in global politics in times of the so called digital era. The article advances the idea by Hannah Arendt that a concrete example as such has moral relevance and therefore makes a case to foster this approach using »best practices” as explicit examples to follow.

Pernice, I., Informationsgesellschaft und Politik: Vom Neuen Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit zur Global Privacy Governance (Information Society and Politics: From the Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere to Global Privacy Governance) (February 12, 2013). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2013-02

The Information Society and politics influence each other. The Internet sparks and catalyzes this interplay. Political actors are acknowledging the chances that a communication without boundaries and in real time can offer to the economy, education, and social development, but also the challenges that come with it. They are looking for solutions that allow the economy and the administration to take advantage from such potential. Conversely, access to information, knowledge and social media does not only change the public sphere but also politics as well as the relationship between citizen and the state. Open government, open data and participation of the informed citizen are the keywords for the necessary, proactive transparency policy of the state. The semantic web thereby opens new dimensions. It also becomes clear that the debates related to the new regulation on data protection cannot disregard the global perspective. What can be conceptualized so far as »Global Privacy Governance”, seems to constitute a symptom for change that the information society is currently undergoing. Note: Downloadable document is in German.

Puschmann, C., The Politics of Twitter Data (January 25, 2013). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2013-01

Our paper approaches Twitter through the lens of »platform politics” (Gillespie, 2010), focusing in particular on controversies around user data access, ownership, and control. We characterise different actors in the Twitter data ecosystem: private and institutional end users of Twitter, commercial data resellers such as Gnip and DataSift, data scientists, and finally Twitter, Inc. itself; and describe their conflicting interests. We furthermore study Twitter’s Terms of Service and application programming interface (API) as material instantiations of regulatory instruments used by the platform provider and argue for a more promotion of data rights and literacy to strengthen the position of end users.

Berner, K., Constitutions Going Online – Internet-Related Dynamics in Constitutional Law? (October 8, 2011). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-09

The internet is not merely a social phenomenon, it is more than that, it is of constitutional importance. Various academic disciplines have acknowledged this innovation‘s significance and selective internet-related issues have already been discussed from a legal perspective. But while these legal discussions have remained predominantly selective, no one has recently and comprehensively focused on the interrelationship between internet-related developments and the development of constitutions, i.e. the political and legal frameworks of states and societies within states. This gap shall be closed step-by-step. By way of example, it will be discussed at the first stage how German constitutional case-law as a major instrument for keeping pace with changing social and technical conditions has responded to internet-related challenges to the German Constitution. Simultaneously, it will be illustrated how the Court’s jurisprudence has provided a framework within which the internet may operate and further develop. It will be shown that the Constitutional Court has managed to cope with the development of the internet. Nonetheless, its way of addressing internet-related challenges may provoke further criticism and questions. Hence, assessing the Court’s response will not be an end in itself but also provide the basis for further research on internet-related dynamics in constitutional law of various states.

Krcmar, H., Friesike, S., Bohm, M., Schildhauer, T., Innovation, Society and Business: Internet-Based Business Models and Their Implications (June 27, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-07

The term business model became popular with the rise of the Internet and electronic businesses as a means to explain how an organization works. With innovations also the way how customers interact with firms and thus with their products has changed, leading to a world, where companies compete on the basis of their business models. This is also reflected in the many facets of today’s business model, ranging from definitions and taxonomies to software supported business model design. This article gives an overview on business model research, discusses trends and suggests a research agenda of particularly interesting domains for future research.

Blind, K., The Internet as Enabler for New Forms of Innovation: New Challenges for Research (June 28, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-06

The paper analysis the role of the Internet for different types of innovation not only focusing on the traditional set of product, process, organizational and marketing innovation, but also extending to innovation in the public sector. In addition to the role of the Internet for various types of innovations, it has also implications for new forms of innovation, especially for the new paradigm of open innovation, which involves collaborative efforts of numerous partners often with a heterogeneous background. The Internet reduces geographical distance, but its moderating effect on other forms of ‘distance’ relevant for innovation success, like institutional, organizational, technological, and relational distance is also elaborated. Finally, the implications for innovation at the regional level are derived. The paper concludes with a set of research questions and an integrative approach to measure Internet-enabled innovation at the regional level.

Kreibich, R., Oertel, B., Wolk, M., Futures Studies and Future-Oriented Technology Analysis Principles, Methodology and Research Questions (June 28, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-05

Futures studies are the scientific study of possible, desirable, and probable future developments and scope for design, as well as the conditions for these in the past and in the present. Modern futures studies assume that the future is not entirely determinable and that different future developments (‘futures’) are possible and there is scope for design. They are based on the realization that there are indeed a great number of possible futures but that these are not arbitrary. The term ‘Future-oriented Technology Analysis’ refers to potent changes and challenges for futures studies at the interface of technological change with increasingly science-based innovation, attention to societal issues and concerns. Futures Studies and Future-oriented Technology analysis are concerned with complex dynamic systems and processes and engage multiple stakeholders in participatory and interdisciplinary processes to assure distributed understanding and sustainable development. The article discusses principles and context of Futures studies and Futures analyses methodology. It puts forward five core research lines to outline Futures studies contribution to addressing issues in the research area of Internet & Society.

Gassmann, O., Widenmayer, B., Friesike, S., Schildhauer, T., Opening Up Science: Towards an Agenda of Open Science in Industry and Academia (June 26, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-04

The shift towards open innovation has substantially changed the scientific and practical perception of corporate innovation. While scientific studies on open innovation are burgeoning, present research underlies a business-centric view that has focused on the back-end of the innovation process. The impact and implications of open innovation on academic and industrial science at the very front-end of the innovation process have so far been neglected. Our paper presents a conceptualization of open science and research as a peculiarity under the roof of open innovation. We propose four perspectives, outline current trends, and present directions for future developments.

Thielmann, T., Van der Velden, V., Fischer, F., Vogler, R. Dwelling in the Web: Towards a Googlization of Space (September 25, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-03

How is the Googlization of space, people and things affecting the production and dissemination of knowledge within society? Which spatial patterns characterize the searching and finding of information on the Web, and vice versa? Beyond doubt, the spreading GeoWeb in general and the user-driven production of geo-referenced information in particular, has pluralized the representation of spatial conceptions in global networks of communication. But it has also created a domain of scarcity within digital information. Increasingly, the Web – which once held the promise of unimpeded access to the wide world – is beginning to segment our view of the world through social and spatial filtering, with implica­tions for various societal action fields. On the one hand we are dealing with a ‘Backend Googlization’ through the way localization technologies profile countries, cultures and communities, but on the other, we are dealing with user practices that are changed by ‘Frontend Googlization,’ created through individual appropriation of new geomedia technologies. The aim of this discussion paper is firstly to provide an overview of current georeferencing and localization services, and secondly to introduce and discuss their appropriation practices and their role in the societal processes of the creation of order and institutionalized arrangements. To this end, the paper takes geomedia to be an integral part of the everyday constitution of reality that renews the relationship between the Web and the social ground. It argues that the role of geomedia in the processes of the creation of order (within and through the Web) is constituted through specific production and consumer practices. This conceptualization of geomedia as cultural products distinguishes the paper from already existing research projects in the fields of media studies, geography, and critical GIS/cartography. Finally, relevant policy areas are deduced from the interlocking description of practices and social impacts of geomedia technologies. The consequences of the analyzed Googlization of space for social and political spheres of activity are as follows. First, we can recognize a repersonalization of the Internet, through the mobilization of media, but also through the ever greater importance of social networks. Both of these factors are increasingly turning the public space into a semi-public, more and more privatized and personalized space. This development is strengthened by the currently favored political efforts at regulation, in that all geographic location data are allocated the same protection rights as any other type of personal data. Secondly, we can detect a reterritorialization of the Internet, in that ever more contents are being georeferenced, either through cartographic visualization (GeoWeb), or through adaption to the geographical origin of the IP address (geotargeting). Space is thus becoming classifiable sociologically and available for exploitation economically. In this case, mobile Internet applications, which can be located per se and thus can permanently provide us with a ‘sense of space,’ are acting as an additional catalyst. Both developments, that of repersonalization and that of reterritorialization, are making the Internet less and less of a virtual reality. Instead, they lead to more calculable Web practices and therefore a more account-able Web: a medium that is at once ‘able to give account of’ and ‘able to be accounted for’ with reference to social action.

Dobusch, L., The Digital Public Domain: Relevance and Regulation (February 27, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-02

This article advances a critical research approach to computational journalism. By »computational journalism” the article refers to the increasingly ubiquitous forms of algorithmic, social scientific, and mathematical forms of newswork adopted by many 21st century newsrooms and touted by many educational institutions as »the future of news.” By »critical approach,” the article endorses a research model that brackets, at least temporarily, many of the current industry concerns with the practical usability of newsroom analysis. The bulk of the article outlines a series of six lenses through which such a critical approach to computational journalism might be carried out. Four of these lenses are drawn from Schudson’s classic typology of the sociology of news — economic, political, cultural, and organizational approaches. In addition, the author adds Bordieuean field approaches and technological lenses to the mix. In each instance, the author discusses how particular approaches might need to be modified in order to study computational journalism in the digital age.

Anderson, C. W., Notes Towards an Analysis of Computational Journalism (February 22, 2012). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2012-01

This article advances a critical research approach to computational journalism. By »computational journalism” the article refers to the increasingly ubiquitous forms of algorithmic, social scientific, and mathematical forms of newswork adopted by many 21st century newsrooms and touted by many educational institutions as »the future of news.” By »critical approach,” the article endorses a research model that brackets, at least temporarily, many of the current industry concerns with the practical usability of newsroom analysis. The bulk of the article outlines a series of six lenses through which such a critical approach to computational journalism might be carried out. Four of these lenses are drawn from Schudson’s classic typology of the sociology of news — economic, political, cultural, and organizational approaches. In addition, the author adds Bordieuean field approaches and technological lenses to the mix. In each instance, the author discusses how particular approaches might need to be modified in order to study computational journalism in the digital age.

Saldías, O., Patterns of Legalization in the Internet: Do We Need a Constitutional Theory for Internet Law? (October 12, 2011). HIIG Discussion Paper Series No. 2011-02

The paper acknowledges a growing web of legal norms that regulate governance aspects of the Internet. Some of these norms are legally binding; others are closer to what some scholars call soft law. In order to take stock of these developments, I propose an explorative typology that can bring some systematic order into the plurality of Internet norms. Although my framework is not exhaustive, it already sheds some light into future challenges that we should expect. The prospective types that I provide are (a) positivation of soft law, whereby the latter enters the formalized procedures of statutory law; (b) legalization through complementarity, which refers to positive legal instruments belonging to cognate fields flanking the content of soft law; c) informal legalization, which is based on the reproduction, dissemination, and persuasiveness of legal discourses; d) conflicting legalization, a type that aims at highlighting the conflicts of laws that can arise due to the progressive legalization. The results reveal that different types of Internet norms also contain a considerable potential for mutual conflicts. Whenever this occurs, we will have to make some significant choices related to the prevalence of certain social goods over others. Since the Internet environment is not a democratic republic, we cannot resort to significant procedural rules that could ordinarily prescribe hierarchies. However, the results of my typology also seems to suggest that there is considerable room for ordering principles and values according to deliberative arrangements or public reasoning. Although research on Internet governance has provided valuable insights into actors, processes, and interests, the time seems right to focus on the proto-­‐‑legal order that is already in place. The normative question is already waiting for us: How should we deal with this nascent web of Internet laws? The paper claims that unless we shut down the Internet, we will have to engage in dialogue about the »c” word; »c” as in constitution.

Publications in the series


Hofmann, J. (2016). Multi-Stakeholderism in Internet Governance: Putting a Fiction into Practice. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2016(02). Publication details

Meier-Hahn, U. (2016). Exploring the Regulatory Conditions of Internet Interconnection – A Survey Among Internet Interconnection Professionals. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2016(03). Publication details

Pernice, I. (2016). E-Government and E-Democracy: Overcoming Legitimacy Deficits in a Digital Europe. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2016(01). Publication details

Puschmann, C. & Scheffler, T. (2016). Topic Modeling for Media and Communication Research: A Short Primer. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2016(05). Publication details

Richter, N., Schildhauer, T., Neumann, K., & Volquartz, L. (2016). Fostering and hindering factors — success of early stage internet-enabled startups. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2016(04). Publication details


Al-Ani, A. & Stumpp, S. (2015). Motivationen und Durchsetzung von Interessen auf kommerziellen Plattformen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage unter Kreativ- und IT-Crowdworkern. (Motivations and Enforcement of Interests on Commercial Platforms: A Survey among Creative- and IT-Crowdworkers.). HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2015(05). Publication details

Dopfer M., Grafenstein, M. v., Richter, N., Schildhauer, T., Tech, R. P. G., Trifonov, S., Wrobel, M. (2015). Fördernde Und Hindernde Faktoren Für Internet-Enabled Startups. (Supporting and Hindering Factors for Internet-Enabled Startups.). HIIG Discussion Paper Series. Publication details

Hansch, A., Hillers, L., McConachie, K., Newman, Ch., Schildhauer, T., Schmidt, P. (2015). Video and Online Learning: Critical Reflections and Findings from the Field. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2015(02), 1-34. Publication details

Hansch, A., Hillers, L., McConachie, K., Schildhauer, T., & Schmidt, P. (2015). Video and Online Learning: Critical Reflections and Findings from the Field. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2015(02). Publication details

Hansch, A., Newman, C., & Schildhauer, T. (2015). Fostering Engagement with Gamification: Review of Current Practices on Online Learning Platforms. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2015(04). Publication details

Meier-Hahn, U. (2015). Creating Connectivity: Trust, Distrust and Social Microstructures at the Core of the Internet. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2015(03). Publication details

Pernice, I. (2015). Global Constitutionalism and the Internet. Taking People Seriously. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2015(01). Publication details


Al-Ani, A., Stumpp, S., & Schildhauer, T. (2014). Crowd-Studie 2014 – Die Crowd als Partner der deutschen Wirtschaft. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(02). Publication details

Hofmann, J., Katzenbach, C., & Gollatz, K. (2014). Between Coordination and Regulation: Conceptualizing Governance in Internet Governance. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(04). Publication details

Oermann, M., Lose, M., Schmidt, J.-H. & Johnsen, K. (2014). Approaching Social Media Governance. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(05). Publication details

Saldías, O. (2014). Coded for Export! The Contextual Dimension of the Brazilian Framework for Internet Law & Policy. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(06). Publication details

Schmidt, J. & Johnsen, K. (2014). On the Use of the E-Petition Platform of the German Bundestag. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(03). Publication details

Send, H., Friesike, S., & Zuch, A. N. (2014). Participation in On-Line Co-Creation: Assessment and Review of Motivations. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(01). Publication details

Send, H., Friesike, S., Ebert, J., Gollatz, K. & Schildhauer, T. (2014). Online Participation and Decision-Making. HIIG Discussion Paper Series, 2014(07). Publication details