In recent years, a movement has emerged, which assembles itself under the umbrella term “Open Science”. Its intent is to make academic research more transparent, collaborative, accessible, and efficient. In the present article, we examine the origins, various forms, and understandings of this movement. Furthermore, we put the aims of individual groups associated with Open Science and the academic realities of their concepts into context. We discuss that much of what is known as Open Science can be viewed through the prism of a social dilemma. From this perspective, we explain why the concept of Open Science finds a lot of support in theory, yet struggles in practice. We conclude the article with suggestions on how to foster more Open Science in practice and how to overcome the obstacles it is currently facing. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. All rights reserved.