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You see a platform in the ocean made out of wood. Below you can see three yellow stars. It symbolises the INCA project and the european approach on platform models.

Increase corporate political responsibility and accountability of digital platforms (INCA)

Digital platforms have become the fundamental strategic infrastructure for today's economy, politics, and society. Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple, and Microsoft – the so-called GAFAM platforms – are key companies of capitalist economies that accumulate wealth and resources and influence political opinion and cultural content production. The “Increase corporate political responsibility and accountability of digital platforms” (INCA) project examines the growing corporate power of platform capitalism and its hegemony on several spheres of European society: from labour to legislation to public opinion.

By studying the activity of digital firms, a network of 12 European partners will explain the vast implications of platforms for European society. The aim is to find alternative models of platform governance capable of combining technological innovations with social inclusion and citizens' participation in decision-making processes.

Alternative solutions for Europe

Within the INCA project, we will trace the historical lineage of the platform model and how it has emerged in response to broader changes in technological and societal developments. Using desk research, statistical data, and expert interviews with scholars and policy-makers, we will explore the origins of platforms as new organisational forms and investigate existing and novel platform governance models, not only from GAFAM but also from European platforms.

A Horizon Europe cooperation project

Within the project, we work closely with academic researchers from the University of Bologna, Tilburg, Barcelona, Wrocławski, Tartu, SUPSI.  We also cooperate with specialists in urban and media innovations from CoLABOR, Urbasofia, Elhuyar, and BIT HABITAT. You can find all partners on the joint INCA website.


Duration: 1/10/2022 - 30/03/26
Funding: European Union - Horizon 2020 Programm

Former employees

  • Sofie Bilsing Profilbild Sofie Bilsing
    Former student assistant: Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Society

Journal articles and conference proceedings

Kontareva, A., & Kenney, M. (2023). National markets in a world of global platform giants: The persistence of Russian domestic competitors. Policy & Internet, 1-24. Publication details

Other publications

Kontareva, A. (2024). How Russian online platforms compete with global giants. Digital Society Blog. Publication details

Lectures and presentations

Big Tech Emerging Power: Insights from the European Landscape
First INCA Scientific Meeting. San Sebastian/Donostia, San Sebastian/Donostia, Spain: 17.05.2024 Further information

Alina Kontareva

Researching Extreme Contexts: Methodological Challenges and Opportunities
39th EGOS Colloquium 2023: "Organizing for the Good Life: Between Legacy and Imagination". EGOS. University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy: 06.07.2023 Further information

Alina Kontareva

Understanding platform dominance: The role of financialization strategies in the evolution of the platform organizational form.
EGOS: 39th EGOS Colloquium 2023: Sub-theme 75: The New Faces and Interfaces of Digital Platforms. EGOS. University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy: 06.07.2023 Further information

Alina Kontareva, Stephan Bohn

Protecting Domestic Platform Infrastructure: How Russia Mitigated Dependence upon US West Coast Platform Giants.
Workshop: Global Infrastructures: The Production of the Modern World. University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy: 09.06.2023 Further information

Alina Kontareva, Martin Kenney

National platforms in a world of global platform giants: the case of Russian domestic competitors
Lunch Talk | National platforms in a world of global platform giants: the case of Russian domestic competitors. Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society. Humboldt Institute for Internet and Society, Berlin, Germany: 08.06.2023

Alina Kontareva

The Role of Data and Data Partnerships in Digital Platforms.
DSRE Project. University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway: 01.04.2023

Alina Kontareva

Platforms, Ecosystems, and the Digital Economy.
Innovation and Global Challenges. TIK Centre for Technology. University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway: 22.02.2023

Alina Kontareva

The Role of Data in Digital Platforms: from Data Collection to Regulatory Debates
RUSTlab, Data at work series. Ruhe Universität, Bochum, Germany: 20.12.2022 Further information

Alina Kontareva

Organisation of events

Exploring Platform Alternatives: Shaping a Responsible Future
From ‘Big Tech’ to ‘Small Tech’: Values, Norm-Building, and Open-Source. 12.10.2023. Humboldt Institut für Internet und Gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany (National) Further information

Alina Kontareva


Alina Kontareva, Dr.

Senior Researcher: Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Society

Stephan Bohn, Dr.

Senior Researcher & Project Lead: Innovation, Entrepreneurship & Society